Yes, it works fine on a vanilla deployment with Chromium.
That would need to authenticate the session against Apple’s iCloud services. I’ve not tried figuring that one out. If I have a need to push something to Drafts and it isn’t on an Apple device, I’d probably be looking to push it to something available on my always on Mac mini, and then have that push it to Drafts via the file inbox import, or a Drafts shell script; rather than trying to figure out how to manage the authentication and web interaction from the command line.
@agiletortoise doesn’t hang around, so for anyone interested in using this new capture option, it is now out of beta.