Is it possible to create automation that runs a shortcut automatically when a given email is moved into a specific Folder?
Not directly in shortcuts. The Email trigger does not include one for mail being added to a folder. The only way to do this would be to use an online service (depending what mail you use) and run a pushcuts server to trigger the shortcut. For example if you put email into a certain folder in gmail (ie label) you can then use Zapier to trigger a shortcut via Pushcuts.