Looks like iOS 16.1 has a new Get Current Focus action:
Ugh. Right after setting up a dataJar solution for it. About time…
There is also a way to log the Focus Mode that you are in using Toolbox Pro (beta I think) on iOS 16. In the Focus set up screen, at the bottom, there is a Focus Filter section. if you click on Add Filter one of the options is Toolbox Pro. Adding that filter presents you with 5 text fields that you can add anything to. I place the Focus name in Field 1. In Shortcuts you can then add the Toolbox Pro action Get Focus Data and select Field 1 in the option. This returns the text in the field — in my set-up, this is the Focus name. Using this way means that there is no having to update a persistent variable or Data Jar etc each time the Focus mode is changed; the current Focus Name is always available.
It does, however, need to be set up on each device, but doew work on i*OS and macOS.